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Bab 1 Huzoor(A.S) Ki Aamad Se Qabal Tareekh-e-Aalam

Aamad Se Qabal Tareekh-e-Aalam

Mazhabi,Siyasi Ikhlaqi or Moashi Halaat:

Iran:

Arab ki pehli hamsaya iran thi.Iran ka lafz Aryana se mashfaq hey. Jis ka matlab hey Aryaon ki sar zameen. Aehle iran ke aqaid ke barey main Bregid General Percy Sykes(Sir Percy Sykes) ne apni kitab, History of Persia main likha he:

“Arya qoam mazahir parasti ka shikar thi. Roshni, shaffaf asman , aag , hawaien, hayaat bakhsh barishein in sab ki muqaddas maboodon ki tarha pursatish ki jati thi. Jab ke zulmat or qehet saali ko malaon diyo tasawwur kia jata tha. Is mushrikana nizaam main asmanon ko bari ehmiat di jati thi. Suraj ko asman ki ankh kaha jata tha. Roshni ko asman ka farzand-Asmani devta (Varuna) jisy yonani (Ouranos) kehte the. Is ko sab se barey Khuda ki hesiyat se pooja jata tha. Is ke ilawa (Mithere) jo roshni ka devta tha is ki bhi pooja ki jati thi. Varuna or (Mithere) ke barey main in ka aqida ye tha insanon ke dilon ke haal or in ke amaal ka mushahida karte hain or Varuna or Mithere har cheez se waqif hain.” (History of Persia-Jild Awwal-suat 100)

Is muzahira parasti k daur mein zar dusht ka zahoor howa. Zar dusht ne khudaye wahida la shareek par imaan lany ki logon ko dawat di. Logon ne zar dusht ki taleemaat ko qabool kar liya. Zar dusht aik khuda, farishton, Allah k muntakhib bandon, alhaam, jannat aur dozakh par imaan rakhta tha.

Islam se qabal k digar mazaahib ki taleemaat tehreef se paak na reh sake nisi tarha zamanay k halaat ne zar dushti taleemaat ko bhi khalis na rehny diya aur jo taleemaat aaj zar dusht se mosoom ki jati hain ye tehreef shuda hain. Zar dusht ki wafaat k baad log wapis muzahir parasti ka shikaar ho gaye. Do khudaon ko mannay lagey.

         Yazdaan: khair aur bhalai ka khuda  2. Aharman: shar aur badi ka khuda

Is barey mein Quran e kareem mein Allah Tala farmaty hain:

“ Do khuda na banao.khuda to aik hi hey.” ( Surat Al-Nahl Ayat 51)

Sasani badshah is baat ki koshish karty the k is ki reaya inhen khuda samjhe. Badshah ko ye ikhtiyar tha k jis k barey mein chahta muqaddama chalaye baghair is k liye mout ki saza ka hukam suna deta balkey badshah ki maa aur is ki bari malka ko bhi ye ikhtiyaraat hasil the k wo jis ko chahen mout k ghaat utaar den. Badshah ki qowat ka daromadaar askari qowat par hota tha. Iran ka har sheri jis ki umar pandarah saal aur pachas saal k darmiyan hoti is par lazim tha k wo foji khidmaat ada kary. Aamrana malukiyat ka ye nateeja tha k badshah ko apni hifazat k liye khususi intizamaat karney partey the jab wo darbaar aam mein shirkat k liye jaty to is waqt bhi koshish ki jati thi k koi badshah k qareeb na aa sakey.

Professor Arthar likhty hain:

“ Shaahi takhat haal k sirey par pardey k peeche rakha jata tha. Arakeen saltanat aur hakomat k aala ehdeydaron ko pardey se muqarrara faasley par bithaya jata tha darbariyon ki jamaat aur dusrey mumtaaz logon k darmiyaan aik jangla hota tha anchanak parda uthta tha aur shehanshah takhat par bethey, diba k takiye par sahara lagaye zar baft ka beesh baha libaas pehney jalwa gar hota tha. Taaj , jo sony aur chandi ka bana howa aur zamrud, yaqoot aur mootiyon se marsa tha. Badshah k sar k upar chaatt k sath sony ki zanjeer k zariye se latka rehta tha zanjeer is qadar bareek thi k jab tak takhat k bilkul qareeb aa kar na dekha jaye nazar nahi aati thi. Agar koi shakhs daur se dekhta to yehi samajhta tha k taaj badshah k sar par rakha howa hey. Lekin haqeeqat mein wo is qadar bhari tha k koi insaani sar is ko nahi utha sakta. Is ka wazan sarey ekaanwey kilo tha.” ( Iran baehad sasaniyaan suat 530)

Jo shakhs badshah k huzoor hazir hota tha is ko qadeem dastoor k mutabiq sajda karna parta tha. Is shahaana jaaho jalaal aur hifazati tadabeer k bawajood badshah apney aap ko mehfooz mehsoos nahi karta tha. Isey har waqt ye dharka laga rehta k kahin is k dushman is ko qatal na kar den. Chunacha inhon ne apney liye mutadid khuwab gahen banai howi thien. Kisi shakhs ko is baat ka ilm na hota k badshah aaj kahan so raha hey. Kehtey hain k ard sher awwal, khusro awwal, khusro doum aur kai dusrey sasani badshahon k liye chaalis mukhtalif jagahon par bistar bichaey jatey the aur is par bhi baaz waqt badshah in mein se kisi bistar par nahi sota tha balkey kisi mamooli se kamrey mein baghair bistar k hath ka sarhana bana kar letta tha.

Muashara mukhtalif tabqaat mein bata howa tha. Adna tabqey k log muashara k jis tabqa mein paida hotey umar bhar wo is tabqey k sath wabasta rehney par majboor the. In ko apna aabai pasha tarak karney ki azaadi nahi thi. Salaateen aur  umraa darja badarja riaya k khuda aur devta the. Jin ko sajdey kiye jaty the. In k darbaar mein kisi ko bethney ki ijazat nahi thi. In k khilaaf koi lab kushai ki jurrat nahi kar sakta tha. In k jaraim par in ko saza nahi di jati thi. Aam tor par nichley tabqey ka koi fard aala tabqey mein muntaqil nahi ho sakta tha lekin agar kisi shakhs mein koi ghair mamoli johar hota to is ka tarha tarha se imtihaan liya jata agar wo in azmaishon mein pura utarta to phir is ko aala tabqa mein dakhil honey ki ijazat mil jati thi.

Muashi lehaaz se society do tabqon mein bati howi thi aik tabqa amra, raosa, jageerdaron aur foji journalon ka maraat yafta tabqa tha. In k paas mulk ki saari dolat simat kar agai thi.

Dusra tabqa awam ka tha jin mein kasht kaar, mazdoor, dastkaar aur dusrey log the in k muqaddar mein muflisi aur mehroomi likh di gayi thi. Wo sadiyon se is chakki mein pis rahey the.

Kisanon ki halat qabile reham thi. In se har tarha ki begaar aur jabri khidmat li jati thi, jab fooj jang k liye kooch karti to in becharon kisanon k barey barey gorhon in k peechey ghasittay chaley jatey ta k foojiyon ki khidmat baja layen aur in k hukam ki tameel k liye hazir rahen. Is par mazeed sitam ye k in ghareebon ki kisi qisam ki ujrat se hosla afzai nahi ki jati thi. Qanon ghareeb tabqa ki zyada himayat nahi karta tha. Umra apney zer e farmaan kisanon, ghulamon aur riaya ki zindagi aur mout ka apney aap ko maaliq aur mukhtaar samajhtey the. Nat naye taxs kasht karon par lagaey jatey the jinhon ne in ki kamar tor di thi. Is liye bohat se kasht karon ne zaraat ka pesha tark kar diya tha.

Agarchey  foj mein bharti honey se taxon ka bojh kam ho jata tha lekin inhen be maqsad aur khon rez jangon se koi dilchaspi na thi. Log na jaiz tareeke se rupiya kamaney ki bimari ka buri tarha se shikaar ho gaye the. Is tarha jaraim be panah barh gaye the.

Nat naye taxon se sarkari khazana mein jo dolat jama hoti is mein se bohat kam hissa awam un naas ki falah o behbood k liye kharch kiya jata tha. Jo hukmaraan aain se aagah the wo mulk mein sarken bananey, daryaon par pul tamer karney, zer e kasht zameenon ko aabpashi karney k liye daryaon se nehren nikalney aur band tamer karney ki taraf tawajjah dety the.

Lekin bohat kam aisy hukmaraan the jo mulki aamdani ko rafaahe aama par kharch kartey the. Badshah ka apna zaatti khazana hota tha jis mein qeemti ashiya jama ki jati thien. Ghanimat ka sara maal badshah ki zaatti milkiyat shumaar hota tha. Wasi o aareez jageeren badshah ki zaatti milkiyat hoti thien jis se is ko be panah aamdani hoti thi.

Is be panah aamdani k bais badshahon ki zindagiyan aish o ishrat se guzarti thien. Umra aur raosa k libaas be had qeemti hoty the aur is se in ki shaan o shukat ka andaza lagaya jata tha. Umra kulah sar par pehantey the jis mein qeemti jawahiraat jurey hotey the.

Yunnan:

Yunnan ki halat ye thi k

         Be shumaar jaandaron aur be jaan cheezon ko mabood ka darja hasil tha. Jin mein pathar, darakht, chopaye aur parindey shamil the. Shajar parasti ko khas ehmiyat hasil the.

         Ye log weham parast the. Arwah khabesa se mehfoz rehney k khayal se tehniyan sar par lipait li jati thien. Ibadat ki adaigi k waqt in darakhton ki pattiyon se bana howa haar khas tor par galay mein daal liya jata tha. Jis se pehenney wala na sirf mehfoz ho jata balkey muqaddas bhi ban jata tha. Qadeem yonaani janwaron ki pursatish mein bhi kisi se peche na the. Har devta k sath aik janwar makhsos kiya jata tha.

         Marney k baad badshah ki rooh ki pursatish ki jati thi. Is k mutaliq aqeeda tha k wo is ilaqey ya qabeeley ka ab bhi waisy hi hukmaraan hey jis tarha wo apni zindagi mein tha.

         Ibadat gahon mein aurton, ghulamon aur ajnabiyon ka dakhla mamno tha. Is k andar sirf prohat(pujari) dakhil ho saktey the.

         Yunaan k aik shehar mein bot khana tha jis ko (ORACLE OF DELFI) khetey the. Yahan aik bot k khol mein pujari beth kar logon k sawalon k jawabaat aur mustaqbil ki peshan goiyan karta tha aur log is ko ghaib ki awaz samajhty the.

Homar k daur k baad umra k tabqa ne tadreehan badshahon k ikhtiyaraat hasil kar liye badshah ya to napaid ho gaye ya baraye naam reh gaye. Is liye purani badshahi ki jagah hakumat adeedah (Oligarchi) aali gaarchi ne le li.

Sathvi(60) sadee qabal masih tak umra k khilaaf qarzon se dabay howy kisanon aur naye tijarati tabqon ne hamley shoru kar diye hakumat adeedah k zimedaar arkaan amoman askari ehliyat se be behra the. Wo jangon mein shehron ki hifazat se qasir rahey is tarha har shehri riyasat mein adadi takhta ulat diya gaya.

Teen tabqon mein taqseem muashara.

         Badshah …….siyasi ikhtiyaraat k sath sath isy sab se bara mazhabi peshwa mana jata tha aur wo apney umra ki madad aur mashwaron se hukumat ka karobaar chalata tha. Badshah aur is ki malka aam logon ki tarha khud bhi kaam karty the aur devis name badshah ko is baat par fakhar tha k wo apney kheton mein kaam karta hey aur is ne apna palang khud banaya hey aur is ki malka peni lopi soot kat ti aur kapra bunti hey.

         Dusra tabqa umra ka tha….. in ka ye dawa tha k wo deviyon aur devtaon se peda howey hain aur in ka nasb zeves devta se milta hey jo koh e olampis k devtaon k khandaan ka hakim aala hey isi dawey ki bina par inhon ne muashara mein digar tabqaat aur qabail par foqiyat hasil kar li thi.

         Teesra tabqa awaam ka tha…. Jinhen jangon se koi wasta nahi tha. In ka muashi nizaam gharat giri aur behri qazaqi k ilawa tijarat aur kasht kari tha. Wo muwashi paltey aur ghalla ugatey the. Khas kasht zetoon aur angor the. Aslah saaz jangi rath aur jang k liye aslah tiyar karney mein mahir the.

Yunaan mein zarrai zameenon ki miqdaar bohat kam thi is liye khushal kisanon k liye ye mumkin tha k wo apney mehdod qatat araazi mein kasht Karen. Lekin qareeb kisanon k liye kheti baari karna mumkin nahi tha. Wo dolatmand hamsaiyon se qarz leny par majboor ho jatey the. Qarz khuwa giran shahra sood par inhen qarza detey the. Maqroozon k liye qarzon ki adaigi aik kathan marhala tha. Mehdod amdani mein se ikhrajaat purey karna nehayat dushwaar amal tha. Jab muqarrara waqt par qarz ada na kar saktey to jaidaad se cheen li jati thi. Shakhsi azaadi se bhi inhen mehroom hona parta tha. Aisy shakhs ko majboor kiya jata k qarz khuwa k baghon mein mazdoori karta rahey.

 

Rome:

Qadeem romiyon ka aqeedah devta parasti tha. Un gennat mabood the. Roami zarraat pesha the. Inhon ne kheton k liye deviyan muqarrar kar rakhi thien. Gharelo maboodon mein vesta thi jo aagg ki devi ki muhafiz samjhi jati thi. Is ki prohat aurten (mazhabi umoor ki nigran) howa karti thien. Jin ko “Vesta ki kuwariyan” kaha jata tha. In ka kaam ye tha k har waqt aagg roshan rakhen. Roam mein aik bara atish kadha tha jahan khabhi aagg nahi bhujti thi. Roam mein bhi yonana ki tarha badshah parasti, arwah parasti aam thi. Mazhabi rehnumaon ne har khas o aam ko ye ijazat de di thi k wo jo chahen gunah Karen is k baad paadri sahib se muafi nama le kar is gunah se bari uz zimmah ho jayen. Aik mazhabi firqey k nazdeeq deen dari ka sab se ehm juz rehbaniyat thi. Har qisam k araam o asaish se jisam ko mehroom kar k har qisam ki takleef o azaab mein khud ko tamam umar mubtila rakhna behtreen ibadat thi. Kisi ne tamam umer ghusal na karne ki qasam kah lit hi, koi khud ko bojhal zanjeeron mein jakrey howy tha, kisi ne saya mein bethney ko apney upar haram kar liya tha kisi ne khud ko andheeri kotri mein band kar liya tha. Maa baap, aziz o aqarib aur ahl o ayaal, deendari ki rah k kante the, in se nafrat kamal e taqwa samjha jata tha.

Saltanat roam ki abadi muasharti tor par do tabqaat mein taqseem thi. Aik tabqa umra ka aur dosra tabqa awaam ka tha. Umra khushaal the aur in k paas bari bari jaidaaden thien.

Abaadi ki bohat bari aksariyat ka talluq awaam se tha wo log sirf juzwi heesiyat se shehri the. Hakumat ne jamhuriyat aur shahenshahiyat k zamane mein darsgahon ki khabhi sar parasti nahi ki chunacha is waqt ki dars gahon mein taleemi ikhrajaat bohat zyada the. Wohi bacche dars gahon mein tehseel ilm k liye dakhil ho sakty the jin mein taleem k ikhrajaat bardasht karny ki salahiyat thi.

Khushaal roami ash o rahat k zindagi basar kiya karty the wo dehaat mein apney liye bangle tamer karty. In k khany peeny ka shoq janoon ki had tak pohncha howa tha. Chunacha wo aik martaba khana kha kar umdan qey kar k pait khali kar dety ta k dusri martaba lazeez khanon se lutf andooz ho saken. Kisanon k liye araam k samaan na hony k barabar the. Beroz gari aam thi aur hakumat ne khabhi is sangeen masly ki taraf tawajjah nahi di thi. Chunacha nisf se zyada abadi kheraat par guzar ukaat karti thi.

Roam ka iqtisaadi nizaam makhloot qisam ka tha. Is mein niggi karobaar ki ijazat bhi thi aur is mein baaz sanaton ko hakumat ne apni milkiyat mein le liya tha. Jageeren wasi se wasi tar hoti ja rahi thien aur kashtkaar majbooran bary zameedaron ki ghulami ki zanjeeron mein jakrey howy the qehat saali ya tughyani ki wajah se in ki zarrai pedawaar buri tarha mutasir howi thi lekin taxon ka bojh jon ka ton in par baqi rehta tha. Pe dar pe jangon ki wajah se aam kashtkaar rooz afzon taxon k bojh ko bardasht karny se qasir the. Sanati karkhanon mein mazdoori karny waly log azaad the. Hakumat apney karkhanon mein zyada tar aisi cheezen banati jin ki foj ko, afsar shahi ko aur ahl e darbaar ko zarorat hoti.

Mulk roam ki maadani dolat hakumat ki milkiyat thi. Lekin private idaron kanon ko hakumat se kiraya par lety the. Reshmi parcha jaat aur arghowani rangon ki saakht sirf hakumat k tassarruf mein thi. In k karkhany shahi mehlaat k andar hoty. Sab se zyada qeemti reshmi kapra shahi khandaan k afraad k liye makhtas tha.

Misar:

Misar mein devtaon aur deviyon ki fooj mojood thi aur in devtaon aur deviyon k pujari bhi mukhtalif the. Is mein janwaron k sar rakhny waly devtaon ki bari tadaad mojood thi. Mutalla mirariyaat se maloom hota hey k qadeem misar ka jahil tabqa in devtaon ka mutqad tha lekin taleem yaafta tabqa in devtaon ki pursatish nahi karta tha. Misari ibtida se hayaat baad ul moat k qail the in ka ye aqeedah tha k insaan ko marny k baad zinda kiya jata hey aur is ko is k amaal k mutabiq jaza aur saza di jati hey. Is aqeeday k peesh e nazar in k yahan murdon ki tadfeen o takween k barey mein bari ajeeb o ghareeb rasmen thien. Wo in ki qabron mein aur cheezon k ilawa khany peeny ki cheezen bhi rakh diya karty the aur jab in ka koi badshah marta to is k liye pahaar kaat kar wasi o areez madfan tiyaar kiya jata jo kai kamron par mushtamil hota tha. Is mein daakhley k liye pahari mein chalaya jata tha. Is se aagey kamrah k barabar aik garha khod diya jata phir is se agey aik dusra karma hota. Jis mein shahi taboot rakha jata. Jis mein badshah ki hanoot shuda mammi(laash) rakhi hoti, is k dayen bayen do kamrey hoty jin mein badshah ki zarorat ka samaan shahaana andaaz se rakh diya jata. Soony k zewaraat, soony ka takhat, sunheri kursi aur digar qeemti ashiya k ilawa kai bartanon mein khany peeny ki cheezen rakh di jatien, pani se bharey howy kai matkey bhi rakh diye jaty the. Mahireen asaar e qadeema ne jo maqbarey dariyaaft kiye hain aur inki khudai ki hey wahan se ye saari cheezen dastiyaab howi hain. Jin mein se kai cheezen misar k ajaib ghar mein mojood hain.

In ka aqeedah ye tha k dafan karny k baad badshah dubara zinda hojaye ga aur is ko is duniya ki zindagi ki tarha khudaam aur khadmaaon ki bhi zarorat pary gi, is liye khadmon aur khadmaaon ki aik jamaat is kamrey mein khari kar di jati aur darwaza band kar diya jata is k samney mitti aur rait ka is tarha dheer laga diya jata k kisi ko pata na chaley k yahan koi badshah apne zavraat, ajnaas aur khudaam k sath madfoon hey. Badshah ki miyyat par to jo guzarti hogi wo guzarti hogi, lekin in zinda khudaam aur khadmaaon par jo guzarti hogi is ka tassavur kar k hi larza taari ho jata hey.

Misari muashara mein sab se aala tabqa mazahbi peshwaon aur umra ka tha jo tadaad mein bohat kam tha. Lekin ikhtiyaraat aur asar o nafooz mein in ka koi muqabla nahi kar sakta tha. In k khudaam lakhon the. Zameen firoon ki milkiyat thi. Imraani nizaam ka ye usool muslim tha k har shakhs upar se aye howy har hukum ki pabandi kare. Sirf siyasi aitbaar se hi nahi balkey wo isy aik mazahbhi fariza bhi samjhe. Jo kaam kisi k supurd kiya jaye aur jahan kisi ko mutaiyen kar diya jaye isy chahiye k wafadari se apney farz ko baja laye.

 

Qadeem Misar main badshah ko devta tasawwur kia jata tha or is tarha is ke liye adaab pursatish baja laye jate the. Badshah hi barey khudaon ke samney apni riaya ki numaindagi karta in ki taraf se qurbaniyan paish karta tha or mazhabi taqribaat main sidarat ke faraiz anjaam deta tha. Badshah ke taalluqaat mazhabi paishwaon ke sath aam taur par dostana hote the lekin jab kabhi koi kamzor badshah takht nasheen hota to mazhabi paishwa is ki kamzori se faida uthate hoye is ke shahi ikhiyaraat sambhal letey the.

Iraniyon ki tarha qadeem Misar main bhi badshah ke mutalliq yahi aqida tha ke ye khudai khandaan ka aik fard hey or khud khuda ne hi is ko ye hukumat or saltanat bakhshi hey.

Badshah ko hasb e zarorat mashwara den eke liye ulma o fazla or sn raseeda tajarba kaar logon ki aik majlis mashawarat mojood hoti thi lekin badshah in ke mashware or faisla ka paband nahi tha.

Misar mashi lehaz se buhat khushhaal tha . Misar main dariyaye Neel ka pani zaraat ke liye az had mufeed hey. Raigistan ka jo hissa is darya ke pani se seraab hota hey wo qalil muddat main sar sabz o shadaaab khaiton lala zaron or murghzaron main tabdeel ho jata hey. Romiyon ne ise tees saal qabal Maseh main fatah kiya or 640 tak is par hukmaraan rahe. Misar ki azaadi ka ikhtetaam is ke liye mout ka paighaam tha. Romiyon ne misriyon ko ghulam ban alia tha . Ghulami ke baad is ki mashi halat mian inhetaat or zawaal ronoma hone laga. Ahista ahista mulk ki tamam doolat par romi qabiz ho gaye. Room ko saman khurd o noosh pohanchane ke liye yahan ke ghalley par tax lagaya gaya or khazany main sone chandi par izafi tax lagaya gaya. Teem char sadyon main Misar ki maali halat itni digar gon ho gai ke taxila mian sikke banna band ho gaye or log jins ke badle jins farokht karne par majboor ho gaye the.

Hindustan:

Murkheen ka kehna hey k qadeem Hindustan ki tareekh mein sab se zyada tareek daur taqreeban 500 se shuru hota he, is daur ki numayan khususiyaat hasb e zail thien:

         Shirk jo ibtida hi se Hindustan k khameer mein dakhil tha, ab wo had etedaal se bahir hogaya chunacha waid mein jo 33 devtaon ki tadaad thi wo barhty barhty karoron devtaon tak pohnch gayi.

         Wedaik ehad mein mandiron k andar bot parasti aam raij thi.

         Mandiron k muhafizeen badikhlaqi k sar chasmy the jo lakhon karoron na waqif pursatish karney walon ko mazhab k naam par loot lety the.

         Khuda ki talash janglon aur paharon mein ki jati thi, jisam ko sakht se sakht ayza aur takleef dena inki behtreen ibadat thi.

         Fasid khiyalaat, bhoot pareet aur sankaron qisam k oohaam ka mazhab tha.

Jab aariyon ne Hindustan par qabza kiya to jo qabeela jahan abaad hota gaya qabaili nizaam k mutabiq wahan choti choti riyasaten qaim ho gayen, is liye aariyon k ibtidai ehad mein hamey Hindustan ka malik in ganat choti choti riyasaton mein bata howa maloom hota hey. Har qabeeley ka sardaraan ka raja hota tha. Is ko mashwara deny k liye qabeeley k buzurgon ki aik counsel tashkeel de jati thi aur raja faraiz jahan baani anjaam deny mein in se madad liya karta tha. Is k bawajood raja mukhtaar matlaq tha. Is ka haq ye tha k wo jis tarha chahey riyaya se tax wasool karey. Lekin is ki ye zimedaari nahi thi k wo apni qoam ya qabeela k samney koi tafseeli report pesh karey k is ne in k ada karda taxon se hasil honey wali raqam kahan kahan kharch ki he, kisi ko is par aiteraaz karney ka bhi haq nahi tha.

In choti choti riyasaton mein baheemi cheer chaar hoti rehti thi jo baas ukaat qoami jang mein tabdeel ho jati thi. Khoon k darya behtey. Gaon aur qasbon ko nazar atish kar diya jata tha. Zaat paat k nizaam ne hinduon mein aik qoamiyat k tasavvur ko bhi panapney nahi diya tha.

Jin khudaon ki wo poja kartey the in mein bhi yagangat thi. Har gaon ka alehdah devta hota aur gaon walon ki har zarorat puri karney k liye alehdah alehdah bot the. In be shumaar ikhtilafaat ne Hindustan ko aik mulk ya aik mumlikat aur is k bashindon ko aik qoam banney nahi diya.

Ahliyaan hindu ko chaar tabqaat mein taqseem kar diya gaya tha.

         Barheman   2. Kashtari    3. Wesh    4. Shudar

Tamam tabqaat ki darja bandi kar di gayi aur tafseel se har tabqa k faraiz biyan kar diye gaye the aur is qanon ki khilaaf warzi karney walon k liye saazain bhi muqarrar kar di gayin. Aain k mutabiq shudaron ko mazhabi taleem hasil karney ka haq hasil nahi tha. Aisa ijtima jis mein chotey tabqey ka koi fard mojood ho wahan barheman ko janey ki ijzat nahi thi ko wo muqaddas kitabon ki tilawat kare. Na shudaron ko is baat ki ijazat thi k wo in kuwain se pani bhar saken jin se onchi zaat k hindu pani bhartey the. Wo aam shehron mein nahi reh saktey the balkey shehron se alag in ki makhsoos abadiyan hoti thien. Shurdaron k naam se aik puri qoam aisi ghulami mein mubtala thi k deen o emaan taleem o tarbiyat aur tehzeeb o ikhlaaq har cheez se mehroom rehna inka muqaddar bana diya gaya tha. Waid ki awaaz bhi in k kanon mein par jaye to in mein sisah pighla kar daal deny ka hukum tha. Rajaon ki biwiyon ki koi tadaad qanonan muqarrar na thi. Qanon ki buniyaad masawaat insaani par nahi balkey zaaton par thi. Aurten farookht ki jati thien.

Aryaon ne Hindustan mein abaad hony k baad zarraat ko apna pesha bana liya tha. Punjab k zarkhez medaan ganga aur jamna k darmiyaan ka zarkhez ilaqa in k tasallut mein tha jahan wo kheti baari kartey the. Zarorat k mutabiq ajnaas khurdani ki kasht karty aur anaaj se apni zaroriyaat puri kartry the. Is waqt aali shaan mehlaat aur bary bary shehron ko abaad karney ka riwaaj aam nahi tha. Log kacchey makaan ya sar kandey ki jhunpari bana kar gaon mein zindagi basar kartey the.

Cheen:

Cheen mein shang khandaan k loog mukhtalif muzahir fitrat ki poja kartey the. Zameen, darya, hawain, mashriq o maghrib waghera in k mabood the. Shang agar muhazzib aur matmadan the lekin in k yahan apney devtaon ki qurbaan gahon par insaani qurbani ka riwaaj tha aur amooman jangi qaidiyon ko bhaint charhaya jata tha. Baaz uqaat fooji mehmen sirf is maqsad k liye beron e mulk bheji jatien k wo ghair cheeniyon ko qaid kar k le aayen ta k in ko qurbani k tor par in k maboodon k liye zibah kiya jaye.

Wo sirf aisy devtaon ki poja kiya karty the jin ka talluq in k khayal k mutabiq bar waqt barish barsany, umdah faslen uganey aur jangon mein dushman ko shikast deny se ho. Cheen k awaam bhi miyyat k sath qeemti ashiya ko dafan kiya karty the. Maali lehaaz se kamzor log bhi apni istitaat k mutabiq is riwaaj k paband the.

Cheen mein taaj o takht shahi khandaan mein morose hota tha. Lekin badshah k baad is ka beta takht nasheen nahi hota tha balkey is k bhai ko taaj shahi pehnaya jata tha. Badshah ki ahem zimedariyon mein fooj ki kiyadat the. Wohi mulk ki afwaaj ka commander unchief hota tha. Mazhabi rasomaat aur digar taqreebaat bhi badshah hi sar anjaam deta tha. Parohaton ki aik taleem yafta jamaat is silsily mein is ki madad karti thi. Parohat ilm najoom k mahir hoty the. Mazhabi rasoomaat ada karny k liye badshah ki aanat aur rehnumai karty the.

Ye mulk jitna wasi hey itni hi is ki saqafat aur tehzeeb qadeem hey. Ahl e cheen ki science ijadaad shuro se hi bari heart angeez hain aur is baat ki gawahi dety hain k jab duniya k aksar mumalik jahalat aur nakhuwandagi k andheron mein liptey howy the is waqt bhi cheen mein ilm ki shama roshan thien. Cheenon ne koila ko bator e indhan istimaal karna shuro kiya. Dusri sadi iswi mein inhon ne darakhton ki chaal aur san k reshon se kaghaz banana ki sanat ejaad ki. Chonti sadi iswi mein inhon ne lohy ko pighlany k fan mein maharat hasil kar li.

Cheeni muashara k log sirf aik shadi karty lekin badshah aur umra k haram mein mutadid biwiyan hoti thien in par koi pabandi na thi. Aala khandaan mein aurton ko izzat aur waqqaar hasil tha. Ghulami ka riwaaj tha aur muashara mutadid tabqaat mein bata howa tha.

Agarchey  science inkishafaat aur sanati ejadaad mein in k ulma o fazla ne azeem ul shaan karnamy anjaam diye lekin in ki maishat ka daromadaar zarrat par tha. In ki zarrat k tareky bohat purany the in k kheti baari k aalaat bhi qadeem tarz k the. Wahan gandum, bajara, chawal ki kasht hoti thi. Is k ilawa log muashi paltey the. In ka dudh aur gosht khuraak k kaam ata. Teer or kamaan in k behtareen hatiyaar the. Halat e jang mein in hatiyaaron se wo dushman ka muqabla karty the aur halat e aman mein inhi hatiyaaron se shikaar karty the.

Arab:

Arab mein islam se qabal mukhtalif mazahib the.

         Kuch log Allah Tala ko mantey the lekin Allah Tala k sath shirk karty the.

“ Aur jot um in se pocho k asmaan aur zameen ko kis ne paida kiya hey to bol uthen ge k khuda ne, tum kaho k khuda ka shukar hey.” ( Surat Al-Luqman Ayat-25)

         Kuch log Allah Tala ki qail the lekin qayamat, jaza aur saza k munkir the. Quran kareem ne qayamat k sabot k barey mein farmaya he:

“ Keh do k wohi dubara zinda kary ga jis ne pehli dafa paida kiya tha.” ( Surat Yaseen Ayat-79)

         Kuch log jaza aur saza ko mantey the lekin nabowat k munkir the. Qaraan kareem mein irshaad he:

“ Kehty hn ye kesa rasool hey jo khata hey peeta hey aur bazaar mein chalta phirta hey.” ( Surat Al Furqaan Ayat-7)

Arab mein zyada tar tadaad bot paraston ki thi. Is k ilawa digar mazahib k manney waly log bhi arab mein abaad the.

         Bot parast            2. Esayiat              3. Yahudiyat         

          Saibeen              5. Atish parast       6. Hanfiyat

         Ahl e arab ki aksariyat bot parast thi. Jin khudaon ko ye log mantey the in k bot bana liye the aur ja baja azeem ul shaan bot kedy qaim ho gaye the. Ye riwaaj is qadar aam ho gaya tha k jahan khub surat pathar mil gaya, utha liya aur is ki pursatish shuro kar di. Jahan koi pathar na mila, mitti ka aik toda bana liya. Aik bakri la kar is ka doodh is par dala, phir is k gird tawaaf kiya aur yun wo aik mabood ban jata tha. Aqal mein fitoor ne aam o khas ko bot parasti mein mubtila kar diya tha.

In k boton par kutty peshaab kar dety the. In par makhiyan bhinbhinati thien. Shirk ka ghalba itna zyada tha k mushriqeen ye nahi sochtey the k jis ki ibadat karty hain is mein itni taqat nahi k apney upar se makkhi ura de. Khany kaba aur is k ataraaf mein teen so saat (360) bot the.

         Qabal az Islam arab ke buhat se ilaqon mian Essai mazhab raij tha. Bano Qaza ka talluq Essaiyat se tha. Is ke ilawa qabila Ghassan or Rabiya bhi Essaiyat ke manne wale the. Qabila Tey ka rais Hatim Tai bhi Essai tha. Najraan ke log bhi Essai the.

         Panchwen sadi qabal Massih main bakht Nasar ne jab yahodiyon ko nest nabood karna chaha to yahodi arab chale aye.

Bano Hars bin kaab, Bano Kanana, Hameer, Kanda yahodi qabile the. Khybar ke log bhi yahodiyat mian dakhil ho gaye the. Yasrab mian Bano Nazeer, Bano Qenqa or Bano Qarizah, yahodi qabail the.

         Syed Suleman Nadwi(r.a) ne Arz-ul-Quran jild doom main biyan kia hey ke Saibeen ka asal mulid Babil tha. Sitaron or bothon ki poja karte the. In ka qabila Qutub Shomali tha. Saibeen mian rozon ke din muqarar the. In ka ye aqida bhi tah ke jo Misri firoon ke sath dobne se bach gaye wo Qutub Shomali ki jannat main araam kar rahe hain. Saibeen Hazrat yahya(a.s) ko saccha nabi mante the.

         Atish parast Iran se hijrat kar ke Arab ki mashriqi sarhadon or Yaman mian abaad ho gaye the. Aag ki pooja karte the. Aag ko Khuda ka Noor or naiki ki alamat samjhte the.

         Qabal az Islam kuch log saleem ul fitrat bhi the jo ye jante the ke arab main jahalat or bade ne deen ki haqiqat ko chupa rakha hey. Ye log Deen-e-Hanif par qaim the. Hanif ka lafz Hazrat Ibrahim(a.s) ki liye istemal hota hey. Ye log fitratan badi or burai se hamesha door rehne ki koshish karte the. Ye log Hazrat Ibrahim(a.s) ki deen ki talash main rehte the or Towheed ke manne wale the. In ki tadaad buhat kam the. Tuham parasti or boot parasti se ukta kar Haq ki talash main rehte or apne ap ko ibadat main masroof rakhte the.

Qabal az Islam arab ke siyasi halat buhat kharab thi. Arab main koi ba zabta hukumat nahi thi. Yahan ke log mukhtalif qabail mian taqseem the. Koi bhi in par hukumat karne ko tayyar nahi tha. Kyun ke yahan par ziyada tar hissa registan or sehra par mushtamil the. Koi rozgar nahi tha. Koi paidawaar nahi thi. Ba qaida abadiyan nahi thin. Koi ba qaida hukumat qaim nahi thi. Is liye kisi fateh ne is ko fatah karne ki koshish nahi ki. Agar kisi ne hamla kia bhi to in ko shikast dete hoye agey nikal gaya yahan par apni hukumat qaim nahi ki. Isi liye arab ke log fitratan azad the or kisi ke zer-e-asar rehna pasand nahi karte the.

Arab main Qabal az Islam har waqt jang o jaddaal ka bazaar garam rehta tha. Zara zara si baat par larna or aik dosre ko qatal kar dena sar kaat lena, in ke nazdeek koi masla nahi tha. Har qabila dosre qabila se or har khandaan dosre khandaan se bar sare paikar tha. Har bacha apne baap or azizon ke qatil se iteqam lene ke jazbe main parwarish pata tha. Jawaan hokar is muqqas farz ko anjam deta tha or is tarha aik larai ka silsila barson tak qaim rehta tha. In hi laraiyon ko morkheen or ehle adab Ayyam-ul-Arab kehte hain jin ki tadaad sainkron se mutajavaz hey. In laraiyon main be rehmi or sifaki ki halat ye thi ke jab aik guroh dosre guroh par qabza kar leta to iske burhon,aurton or bachon ko giraftar kar leta or sab ko qatal kar deta. Arbon mian joye ka bhi aam riwaj ho gaya tha, is ki kai surtein thi. Arab ke maal o dolat ka tamam tar sarmaya aonton or bakriyon ki tijarat tak mehdood tha. Baaz auqaat kisi shart par bazi har jane par log maal o dolat ke baad ghar ki khawateen or bachon par bazi laga dete the. Ye qamaar bazi aksar maar peet or larari par khatam hoti thi. Sood khori ka aam riwaj tha. Tamam dolatmand sood ka lain dain karte the. Arbon main loot maar ka aam riwaj tha. Baaz qabail ne rahzani ko apna zarya-e-mash or aam mashghala bana liya tha. Tajiron or soda garon ke qafle baghair kisi bhari inaam ke kisi medaan se basalamat guzar nahi sakte the. Aik qabila dosre qabile ki aurton or bachon ko pakar kar kisi dosre ke hath farukht kar det tha or maweshiyon ko hank kar le jata tha. Muraat yafta tabqe main koi sahib agar is ilzam main pakre jate to wo chor diye jate the.

Aurton ko virasat main hissa nahi milta tha, aik mard jitni aurton se shadi karna chahta to is par koi pabandi nahi thi.Jis aurat ko jis waqt chahta baghair waja ke chor deta tha. Wo haqeeqi behno se aik sath nikah kar lete the, aurat jab biwah ho jati to ghar se bahir aik nehayat tang kothri rehne ko or kharab se kharab kapre pehanne ko diye jate the. Khusboo istemal nahi kar sakti thi. Jis ke ghar main larki paida hoti isko sakht ranj hota or sharam ke maarey logon se chupta phirta tha.

“ Aur jab in mein se kisi ko larki ki khush khabri sunai jati hey to is ka mu kala par jata hey aur gussa k ghont pi kar reh jata hey. Is khush khabri k ranj se logon se chupta phirta he(or sochta he) k zillat k sath is ko qabool kary ya zinda zameen mein dafan kar de.” ( Surat Al-Nahal Ayat-58-59)

Rafta rafta dukhtar kashi ki rasam jari hogai, larki paida hoti to is ko medaan mein le ja kar gharha ghodty aur zinda dafan kar dety the.

Arab k seher mein rehny waly logon ko hazarmi kaha jata tha aur dihaat mein rehny waly logon ko badwi kaha jata tha. Shehri logon k muash ka zariya tijarat tha aur dihaat mein rehny waly logon ka muash zarrat aur haiwanaat ki parwarish karna tha.

Arab k teen taraf behri sawahil waqia hain. Is qudrati jughrafiyai taqseem ki badolat arab k har hissy ko duniya k kisi b dusry mulk k sath tijarati saholaten hasil hain. Is waja se ahl e arab ne tijarat ki duniya mein bari shorat hasil ki. Arab tajir aam tor par khushbu daar ashiya, garam masala jaat, loha, soona, aur digar qeemti jawahiraat, chamra, khalen, zain posh, ghorey, bhair, bakriyan wagera bar amad kiya karty the.

In ki daramdaad mein kapra, ghalla, saman-e-araish, hatiyaar wagera shamil the.

Arab mein wo muqamaat jo sar sabz-o-shadaab the. Maslan Yesrab, Najad, Yamama Khyber, Jazaan, Taif, Najraan, Rabha. Yahan kasht hoti thi. Dusrey phalon k ilawa khajoor yahan ka mashoor phal tha.


BARAN E REHMAT


“Baraan-e-Rehmat” uloom ka khazeena he. Ganj giran maya he. Aksar kitabon ko parhty howy insaan boriyat mehsos karta he. Do chaar safhaat parh kar us ki tashnagi bujh jati he. Jab k azeemi sahib ki seerat ki ye kitaab parhty howy insaan tashnagi mehsos karta he. Wo chahta he k isy mazeed parhay q k har line dusri line aur har safah dusry safah se marboot he. Maloomat se pur ye kitaab qari kin a to nazar idhar udhar hony deti he aur na hi khayal aur ye hi kisi kitaab ki khobi hoti he k wo qari k dil me utar jaye aur wo isy mazeed se mazeed parhney me laga rahe.